prosocial behavior: Prosocial behavior occurs when someone acts to help another person, particularly when they have no goal other than to help a fellow human.
bystander affect: When there is an emergency, the more bystanders there are, the less likely it is that any of them will actually help.
pluralistic ignorance: Groups all have norms of attitude and behavior which are shared and which help form the identity of the group. Adopting these norms, even if you do not agree with them, is a part of the individual sacrifice that people accept as a price of group membership.
empathy altruism hypothesis: If we feel empathy towards a person who needs help, we are likely to help them (in proportion to the empathy felt) without any selfish thoughts. Otherwise, we will help them only if the rewards of helping them outweigh the costs.
aggression: Although aggression is a natural emotion, it is a very social act. It is learned from parents, peers and the media and people are likely to be more aggressive when they believe it will increase their social standing. It can also be cathartic, allowing us to let of steam.
drive theory of social facilitation: a theory suggesting that the mere presence of others is arousing and thus increases the tendency to perform dominant responses.
. roles: sets of behaviors that individuals occupying specific positions within a group are expected to perform.
social facilitation: effects upon performance resulting from the presence of others.
social loafing social loafing: reductions in motivation and effort when people work collectively in a group compared to when they work individually or as independent co-actors.
group polarization: the tendency of group members, as a result of group discussion, to shift toward more extreme positions than those they initially held.
groupthink: the tendency of the members of highly cohesive groups to assume that their decision can’t be wrong, that all members must support the group’s decision strongly, and that information contrary to it should be ignored.
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