Outlaws, Psychopaths, Assholes
Clearly and concisely answer each of the following questions in absolutely no more than a half, double-spaced typed page. (Use 12 point Times New Roman, with one inch margins, header, and footer). You will not get credit for any part of your answer that exceeds this space restriction. You may simply answer the question (citing the question number) without rephrasing it or formulating a thesis statement.
1. Why according Watson are psychopaths not morally responsible for their actions? Why, according to Watson, might assholes (as James defines them) nevertheless be morally responsible for their actions?
2. Calicles claims that “the superior should take by force what belongs to the inferior, that the better should rule the worse and the more worthy have a greater share than the less worthy…” What is Socrates’s argument that the “superior” should not do this? Be sure to state Socrates’s position and formulate at least one of his arguments.
3. Hobbes claims that there is neither justice nor injustice in a state of nature, on the grounds that, first, where there is no common power, there is no law, and, second, where there is no law, there is neither justice nor injustice. Explain why Hobbes believes this FIRST step of the argument (“no common power, no law”) and present a counter-example to it.
4. Hobbes claims that there is neither justice nor injustice a state of nature, on the grounds that, first, where there is no common power, there is no law, and, second, that where there is no law, there is neither justice nor injustice. Explain why Hobbes believes this SECOND step of the argument (“no law, no justice”) and present a counter-example to it.
5. Explain Rousseau’s view that material and status inequality is largely socially created. Be sure to compare Rousseau and Hobbes, even if you mainly develop Rousseau’s position.
6. How for Rousseau is it possible for someone to follow coercive law and yet also “obey no one but himself, and remain as free as before”? Be sure to explain Rousseau’s appeal to moral freedom.
7. State and illustrate Locke’s three conditions for appropriating something as private property.
8. Explain why Locke thought European settlers were justified in appropriating native American lands. Present an objection to his argument.
9. Present Kant’s view that moral action must be done from the motive of duty. Raise a possible problem for Kant’s position.
10. Present a counter-example to Kant’s “categorical imperative” that one should only act in ways that one could also will as a universal law.
11. Why according to Rawls would utilitarianism not be accepted in the Original Position? Be sure to explain the Original Position.
12. Explain the System of Natural Liberty and present an objection to it (whether Rawls’s objection, or one of your own).
13. Present one of Nozick’s objections to Rawls’s theory and explain what Rawls might say in reply.
14. Why according to Rawls does a just society generate its own support over time? Explain with reference to the relevant parts of Rawls’s three psychological laws.
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