Data presentaion and analysis exercise
Using the skills you have seen demonstrated and have practiced in the two Excel sessions, produce appropriate graphs and analyses, according to the instructions, for ALL the following questions. You are also asked to provide a short (2 or 3 sentences only) comment or biological/analytical/public health explanation of the data presented for each question. You do not need to research the topics just provide a reasonable interpretation of the data addressing any specific questions. READ QUESTIONS CAREFULLY. For some questions you need to process the data into a summary form not plot the data as it is presented.
A hard copy MUST be submitted to the assignment handling office in the Richard Crossman Building. The hard copy can be generated in Excel or imported and formatted in Word. It is up to you but remember that professional presentation will be part of the marking scheme. Each answer should be formatted onto one sheet of paper.
Remember that an electronic copy of your Excel file MUST also be submitted through Moodle using the link (not Turnitin) by 11.55pm on the submission deadline. This must be done by putting all your answers into ONE excel spreadsheet file BUT each question needs to be on a different worksheet within that file. This must also be neatly presented.
Marks will be associated with GOOD presentation. Remember this MUST be your own work and electronic files will be screened for copying and cutting and pasting from other files. Any copying (plagiarism) detected will likely result in a coursework mark of zero, with possible further formal action and also, therefore, a failed module.
Information about the coursework data.
For this coursework you will need to access a file on Moodle called ResitCourseworkData2014. It will provide you with your own unique data set to use in the questions below. Make sure you follow the instructions carefully or your data will be incorrect.
Save a copy of the file ResitCourseworkdata, in your name, to your own H:drive or memory stick.
Close your copy of the file and then reopen it.
Perform ‘copy’ then ‘paste special’ for all the data in each question including your student number and data code. Copy all the data into the same cells in the same place.
Save the file, then close it.
(For Paste Special highlight all the data. Right click, copy, then right click again and Paste Special. Click next to Values, then OK. See spreadsheet and video on Moodle for more information on Paste Special if you are not sure.)
You will now have unique data for each question. No other student’s data will be the same. Data for all the questions are on this spreadsheet. Present any answers calculated to 2 decimal places.
1. Every year groups at risk of influenza are offered the seasonal influenza vaccine. It is important to compare coverage in these groups from year to year. Some of this data is presented in Table 1. Plot a suitable graph of the data and comment on the coverage between groups. (5 marks)
2. A study was performed to investigate the relative numbers of male and female polar bears in the arctic from year to year. As numbers are dramatically declining and finding polar bears is difficult many more were found in 2005 than 2008. Plot a suitable graph, from Table 2, which compares males versus females and comment on the findings. (5 marks)
3. Two groups of volunteers were exposed to a stressful situation involving a timed test. Group A were given chewing gum before the test. Stress was measured by taking a saliva sample after the test and measuring the concentration of the hormone cortisol, which is known to be normally distributed in randomly collected saliva samples. Plot a suitable summary graph of the data in Table 3 and comment on the results. What sort of statistical test could you use to compare the results (you don’t not need to perform the test)? (5 marks)
4. The concentration of two biomarkers was measured to see whether they may be useful in monitoring the development of a cancer tumour. The data is presented in Table 4 and comes from 10 different individuals with the same type of tumour. Plot a suitable graph illustrating the relationship between tumour size and biomarker and suggest which might be the more useful biomarker on which to conduct further investigations. Which descriptive statistic could be used in this study? (5 marks)
5. When studying a new drug it is important to know how quickly it is absorbed into the body. As part of an investigation into a new antibiotic the blood concentrations were measured in 5 individuals who were given the same dose at the same time. The raw data is presented in Table 5. Using descriptive statistics summarize the data appropriately and present this graphically. Comment on the results. (10 marks).
6. In recent years the number of bees has declined which could impact on flower pollination and therefore agriculture and biodiversity. Members of the public were asked to record how many bees they found in their gardens over the course of one day. The results are presented in Table 6 and are how many bees each gardener counted. Conduct an analysis which will present an appropriate frequency distribution of the results and comment on the findings. (10 marks)
7. Following an accident at a chemical factory a toxic substance was released into a nearby river. In order to measure levels in samples collected from the river environmental scientists constructed a standard curve. The data for this is presented in Table 7. Perform a linear regression analysis to obtain an equation for the straight line of the standard curve.
a) Plot the linear regression on an appropriate graph (2 marks)
b) What is the equation for the straight line? (2 marks)
c) How well does the straight line fit the data? How would you know? (2 marks)
d) Sample A from the river gave an absorbance value as seen on the spreadsheet. The sample had been diluted by 1/50 before testing. What was the concentration of the chemical in the original sample? (2 marks)
e) Scientists could not report the river as being safe until the (threshold) concentration was below 15?g/ml. What absorbance would indicate this concentration? (2 marks)
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