A STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DETECTION AND PEDAGOGICAL

A STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DETECTION AND PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES

 

Instructions for the 2500 word assignment worth 20% due week 11,
The title is “How the concepts taught in a research methods course can help students deal with a wide variety problems ,publish their findings and do other postgraduate studies”

Two examples of problems and solutions need to be discussed, these are
“How a university can reduce plagiarism” and “SUITABLE topic of your choice”
For the example “How a university can reduce plagiarism” you need to skim through the articles
Chao, C., Wilhelm, W. J., & Neureuther, B. D. (2009). A STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DETECTION AND PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES FOR REDUCING PLAGIARISM. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 51(1), 31-42
This is available on EBSCO
Davis, M., & Carroll, J. (2009). Formative feedback within plagiarism education: Is there a role for text-matching software?. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 5(2).
(This is available on google scholar it is free )
Both of these article explain to how reduce plagiarism by discussing turnitin reports
you will need to
*paraphrase the main findings of the articles
*discuss the research methods used
*discuss how the authors of the articles review the information found in OTHER sources , Comment about how part of the introduction is similar to a literature review , ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpErYDb6PsY 14:00 Since most the articles are short they only deal with one topic so there is no need for practical headings)
*discuss what ethics the RESEARCHERS needed to consider
*Compare and contrast the articles authority , validity and conclusions
(This should include discussion about how the authors enable the reader to verify the information in the article)
For the example “SUITABLE topic of your choice” you need to find at least 5 references that were published in 2008 or later on a very specific aspect of the topic and paraphrase and carefully read at least two of the articles and discuss the research methods used,
for the 2 two articles you read carefully you will need to
*paraphrase the main findings of at least two of the articles
*discuss the research methods used
*discuss how the authors of the articles review the information found in OTHER sources
*discuss what ethics the RESEARCHERS needed to consider
*Compare and contrast the articles authority, validity and conclusion
*Find a “gap” in the articles and propose new research that would fill this gap, you do not have to do the research yourself
The “SUITALBE topic of your choice” can also be “How a university can reduce plagiarism”
Give a final conclusion about how the concepts taught in a research methods course can be applied to many problems and will help you in any future postgraduate studies
email Matt if you want to do a different question such a literature review, Different questions will only be approved if they will demonstrate an understanding of research methods. For example you do a literature review that includes discussion of what research methods are being used, Qualitative or Quantitative

 

The rest of this handout discusses the two articles on how to reduce plagiarism by discussing turnitin reports
*Page 4 is a sample turnitin report
*Page 5 is the introduction to Chao, C., Wilhelm, W. J., & Neureuther, B. D. (2009). A STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DETECTION AND PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES FOR REDUCING PLAGIARISM. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 51(1), 31-42
*Page 6 is part of Chao(2009) , It gives a summary of some appropriate data and analyses this information using QUALITATIVE methods
*Page 7 and 8 is the introduction Davis, M., & Carroll, J. (2009). Formative feedback within plagiarism education: Is there a role for text-matching software?. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 5(2).
that gives a summary of some appropriate data and analyses this information using Quantitative methods
*page 9 to 12 is a possible format , Hints tips and an example
To understand the two articles that discuss how to reduce plagiarism by discussing turnitin reports look at the following.
Sample Turnitin report, Stutent should submit their answer to the 0.5% turnitin task so they can look at their own turnitin report

Introduction to Davis(2009), an article that uses proper research methods
Please refer to part of the article Davis, M., & Carroll, J. (2009). Formative feedback within plagiarism education: Is there a role for text-matching software?. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 5(2). given below
The Authors clearly demonstrate they know the proper way to do research and this has nothing to do with what question is actually being researched,
It is clear that the authors
*Used proper referencing (Most of this is easy just find the article on google scholar click cite and select APA)
*Dealt with a specific problem instead of just giving broad definitions like MOST students do in assignments and exams
*They did an appropriate search for other articles, Many the articles have a clear connection with the specific problem being studied and the start of the article discusses what the existing literature states about a problem.
Formative feedback within plagiarism education:
Is there a role for text-matching software?
Abstract
The need for effective education to enhance students’ understanding and development of academic integrity has been well established, particularly for international students new to tertiary study in English-speaking countries. Most research recommends the use of methods such as instruction and warnings, as part of a plagiarism education programme. Few studies have looked at the role of formative feedback through tutorial intervention in the process of academic writing, in
which use of the text-matching tool Turnitin is made in ways which support learning, rather than guide assessment. This study addresses that gap using data gathered over three years from cohorts of international students in the United Kingdom (UK) with regard to four identified areas of development: avoidance of plagiarism, decrease in over-reliance on some sources, correct use of citation and appropriate paraphrasing. Individual tutorials were held to give formative feedback on students’ own writing, with particular regard to their use of sources. A supportive environment was created in which questions about references could be discussed, by using the Turnitin originality reports directly. The tutorial feedback appeared to have a positive effect on students’ understanding of academic integrity reflected in improved drafts.
This implies that tutorial feedback using Turnitin could be a key factor in plagiarism education. Recommendations for future use are given at the end of the study.
Introduction
This paper explores ways of providing plagiarism education through individual feedback on students’ own work during a formative stage of students’ writing practice. It also examines the place of text-matching software in supporting and evaluating the impact of tutor interventions designed to teach students academic citation skills. The
tool used in this study, marketed under the trade name of Turnitin, is referred to with a variety of claims (“the standard in online plagiarism prevention”, iParadigms, 2007; “anti-plagiarism software”, Sutherland-Smith, 2008), but in general, has the purpose of highlighting students’ unoriginal work. In brief, the tool functions in the following way: once a text is uploaded to the tool’s software, it provides what the makers call an “originality report”. The report suggests an overall percentage of the student’s text which matches sources on its database, and indicates the level of match with a
coloured icon (0=blue, 1-24=green, 25-49=yellow, 50-74=orange 75-100=red). The software can also indicate the percentage of matching text for each named source and presents these as a ranked list in order of quantity. With each student’s text, a reviewer can click on a matched section and then see the suggested ‘original’ text side-by-side for an instant comparison between the two texts. The authors present a three-year case study in the UK where they investigate the effect of feedback on students’ attention to important aspects of academic writing, in particular to avoidance of plagiarism. The approach also examined three features of writing that may be connected with plagiarism: over-reliance on some sources, incorrect or incomplete citation, and insufficient paraphrasing. The underlying approach supports the argument for shifting the focus away from a ‘catch-and-punish’ approach to student plagiarism (Carroll, 2005), and towards one designed to support learning, through formative feedback to students on the use of academic conventions.
Debates continue in higher education as to an appropriate role for text-matching software. Levin (2006) probably speaks for many when he describes those who use Turnitin as the “plagiarism police” since in his view, it polarises student work into two categories: original or potentially plagiarised. In contrast, advocates of using Turnitin, such as the authors, believe it to be a useful support to other traditional teaching methods when used formatively. It is likely that the dichotomy of views between those in favour and against using Turnitin with students reflects much wider beliefs about
student learning, and the role of teachers. This study offers evidence of positive impacts from Turnitin on students’ learning and a key role for teachers.
…. Refer to google scholar for the rest of the article
Selected references
Carroll, J. (2005). Deterring, detecting and dealing with plagiarism, a brief paper for Brookes staff for Academic Integrity
Retrieved January 4, 2007, from http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/5_research/jude.html
iParadigms (2007). iParadigms: Digital solutions for a new era in information. Retrieved October 15, 2007,
from http://www.iparadigms.com
Levin, P. (2006). Why the writing is on the wall for the plagiarism police. RetrievedJanuary 20, 2009,
from http://www.student-friendly-guides.com/plagiarism/index.htm
Sutherland-Smith, W. (2008). Plagiarism, the internet and student learning: Improving academic integrity. New York:
Routledge

An example of using qualitative research methods on a sample and numerical summary of a sample,
taken from
Davis, M., & Carroll, J. (2009). Formative feedback within plagiarism education: Is there a role for text-matching software?. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 5(2).
“Plagiarism education formed a central theme of the module. At least six weeks of instruction was devoted to information-giving, examples and awareness-raising activities, supplemented by online discussion facilities and institutional warnings in the student handbook. To be consistent with the approach across the university, the
Harvard system was taught, practised and discussed with particular emphasis on issues related to accurate use of sources. Following one trial of Turnitin in 2006, its use was made an integral part of the educational process during the module eachyear. Students submitted an electronic version of their first drafts to their tutor, who
uploaded them to Turnitin and studied the resulting originality reports, before using the screen-based information as part of 15 minute individual tutorial feedback interviews. Tutors asked questions during the tutorial to promote student thinking about source use. Data on the impact of the above teaching strategy was gathered by analysing issues that arose from perceived changes in student work from first draft to final draft in the tables below using similar measures of severe, moderate, minor and none, for consistency. The Turnitin originality reports (excluding the matches to bibliographies) were analysed for changes between the drafts. At the end of the module, all students in the research also completed a questionnaire to evaluate the usefulness of Turnitin below), “
One of the four key findings in the study was how using drafts and discussing the turnitin report with students could help reduce plagiarism
“For the purpose of this study, levels of plagiarism were categorised as severe, (10% or more of unattributed text in the draft), moderate (5-9.9%), minor (0.1-4.9%) and no plagiarism (complete absence of unattributed text). To produce a representative result, particularly with the varying lengths of first drafts compared with second drafts,
the number of unattributed words from a matched source was calculated as a percentage of the word count (excluding bibliography).

Qualitative Analysis
“The table indicates a reduction in levels of severe and moderate plagiarism to the majority ending in the minor or no plagiarism categories. The results were affected by one student in 2008 submitting a shorter first draft with little source use, and a final draft with long sections of copied and pasted unattributed text; as an example of
severe plagiarism at the final draft stage, this is clearly a case where the tutorial feedback was unable to help. Nevertheless, most identified plagiarism was at a very minor level of 1-2% of text, and a mean of almost half (45.5%) reduced plagiarism between drafts over the period. Overall, from the questionnaire results, a mean of 73% stated that Turnitin was useful for understanding how to avoid plagiarism and talked about the important learning opportunity they had experienced

‘The software shows your mistakes. Then we can correct them. At the end, when we submit the final draft we don’t want to fail’ (Business student).

‘I would like to use it again because sometimes we do plagiarism without noticing it ‘(Hospitality student).
‘The software is to find plagiarism, so it does not teach how to avoid it. The teacher teaches us that’ (Tech student)

As perceived by the students, Turnitin offers support to help them avoid ‘mistakes’ or unintentional plagiarism, but importantly, they also recognise its limitations and the importance of the tutor’s role. “

Chao(2009) An article that is well researched page 1 of 2
In the article below, The Authors clearly demonstrated they know the proper way to do research and this has nothing to do with what question is actually being researched,
It is clear that the authors

*Used proper referencing
*Dealt with a specific problem instead of just giving broad definitions like MOST students do in assignments and exams
this is great for the first part of an undergraduate course but it is not acceptable when you are doing a postgraduate course or proper research
*They did an appropriate search for other articles, Most of the articles have a clear connection with the specific problem being studied
These points are very important for the 30% section of the exam that does not use formulas and the 20% , 2500 word essay due week 11.

CHAO, C., WILHELM, W. J., & NEUREUTHER, B. D. (2009). A STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DETECTION AND PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES FOR REDUCING PLAGIARISM. DELTA PI EPSILON JOURNAL, 51(1), 31-42.

“Abstract
Plagiarism is an increasing problem in high schools and universities. To address the issue of how to teach students not to plagiarize, this study examined several pedagogical approaches for reducing plagiarism and the use of Turnitin, an online plagiarism detection software. The study found a significant difference between the control group and one instructional treatment group that was reflected in the reduced level of plagiarized text. This finding indicates that the lack of knowledge in proper documentation and paraphrasing is a primary reason why some students plagiarize, albeit perhaps inadvertently. Implications point to the need for consistent in-depth instruction in proper quotation, citation, and paraphrasing techniques.
Introduction
Studies on various forms of academic dishonesty such as cheating on examinations and plagiarism have appeared in academic journals for over 60 years. The rates of student cheating reported in these studies ranged from 23%
in 1941 as reported by Drake to 59% in 1964 (Hetherington & Feldman) to 76% in 1992 (Davis, Grover, Becker, & McGregor). Similar to cheating, plagiarism is a growing problem. According to a 1999 Center for Academic Integrity survey that included over 12,000 students on 48 different college campuses, 10% of the students admitted to using other people’s ideas and words without proper citation (McCabe, Trevino, & Butterfield, 2001). In a later study (McCabe, 2005), 40% of the students surveyed admitted to plagiarism. Research has shown that plagiarism in the form of copying text from electronic documents available through the Internet and other electronic sources is an increasing problem in universities as well as high schools (Larkham & Manns, 2002; McCabe, Trevino & Butterfield, “
Body

See original document for full body just enter the title on ebsco , this was 38 pages long, it basically said that there was a lower proportion of plagirarism in the semesters where student were given a lesson on turnitin, And a relevant hypothesis test and p-value was calculated. Since the argument in the argument was supported by a p-value and p-value uses formula the body of the article used Quantitative research methods, You have to demonstrate you understand the difference between Quantitative and Qualitative methods and state which is more appropriate, Using “mixed methods” is commonly a good approach

An article that used the proper research methods page 2 of 2

References
Auer, N. J., & Krupar, E. M. (2001). Mouse click plagiarism: The role of
technology in plagiarism and the librarian’s role in combating it. Library
Trends, 49(3), 415-432.
Barry, E. S. (2006). Can paraphrasing practice help students define plagiarism?
College Student Journal, 40(2), 377-384.
Braumoeller, B. F., & Gaines, B. J. (2001). Actions do speak louder than words:
Deterring plagiarism with the use of plagiarism-detection software. College
Political Science & Politics, 34(4), 835-839.
Campbell, D., & Stanley, J. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs
for research on teaching. In N. L. Gage (ed.), Handbook of Research on
Teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Davis, S. F., Grover, C. A., Becker, A. H., & McGregor, L. N. (1992). Academic
dishonesty: Prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching
of Psychology, 19(1), 16-20.
Drake, C. A. (1941). Why students cheat. Journal of Higher Education, 12(8),
418-420.
Fanning, K. (2005). Is honesty still the best policy? Junior Scholastics, 107(17),
8-9.
Hetherington, E. M., & Feldman, S. E. (1964). College cheating as a function of
subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55(4),
212-218.
Howard, R. M. (2002). Don’t police plagiarism: Just TEACH! The Education
Digest, 67(5), 46-49.
Lambert, S. (2005, February 28). We must promote academic integrity – now.
Community College Week, 4-5.
Landau, J. D., Druen, P. B., & Arcuri, J. A. (2002). Methods for helping students
avoid plagiarism. Teaching Psychology, 29(2), 112-115.
Larkham, P., & Manns, S. (2002). Plagiarism and its treatment in higher education.
Journal of Further and Higher Education, 26, 339-349.
Maramark, S., & Maline, M. B. (1993). Issues in Education: Academic dishonesty
among college students. Washington, D.C.: Office of Educational Research
and Improvement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 360903).
Martin, D. F. (2005). Plagiarism and technology: A tool for coping with plagiarism.
Journal of education for Business, 80(3), 149-152.
McCabe, D., Trevino, L., & Butterfield, L. (2001). Cheating in academic
institutions: A decade of research. Ethics and Behavior, 11(3), 219-232.
McCabe, D. (2005). CAI research. The Center for Academic Integrity. Retrieved
on March 30, 2005, from http://www.academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asp
McLafferty, C. L., & Foust, K. M. (2004). Electronic plagiarism as a college
instructor’s nightmare – prevention and detection. Journal of Education for
Business, 79(3), 186-189.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001).
Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Robinson–Zañartu, C., Peña, E. D., Cook-Morales, V., Peña, A. M., Afshani, R.,
Volume LI, No. 1, Winter, 2009. 42
A Study of Electronic Detection and Pedagogical Approaches
& Nguyen, L. (2005). Academic crime and punishment: Faculty members’
perception of and response to plagiarism. School Psychology Quarterly,
20(3), 318-337.
Roig, M. (1997). Can undergraduate students determine whether text has been
plagiarized? The Psychology Record, 47(1), 113-122.
Talab, R. (2004). A student online plagiarism guide: Detection and prevention
resources. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning,
48(6), 15-18.
An example of using quantitative research methods on a sample and numerical summary of a sample, taken from
Chao, C., Wilhelm, W. J., & Neureuther, B. D. (2009). A STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DETECTION AND PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES FOR REDUCING PLAGIARISM. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 51(1), 31-42
The turnitin matches of the assingments of students in 3 different groups was collected
“Control Group
The control group received minimal instruction about avoiding plagiarism
Level 1 test group
While there were explicit instructions given to the students in this group to employ proper paraphrasing techniques, there were no activities that made students practice paraphrasing techniques. To familiarize students with the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, an originality report of an anonymous previous students written submission was shown and discussed during class as a negative example.”
Level 2 Test Group
the same as level 1 , Except that they had and additional exercise in which students paraphrased two paragraphs. The exercise was graded by the
instructor and returned to the students along with detailed feedback. “
Results
Study groups n Mean turnitin match Standard deviation
control 33 5.45 8.74
Level 1 test group 42 2.29 5.452
Level 2 test 41 1.9 4.51

Quantitative Analysis
Use computer to perform an ANOVA (the formula is very long so use a computer instead of doing it by hand)
H0: µ1= µ2= µ3 H1: at least one difference

, the p-value=0.0372 is less than the default significance level a=0.05 so reject H0 because there is strong evidence at least one of the means is different
“To test the hypothesis that there would be significant differences among the control group and the two experimental groups, a one-way ANOVA was used to compare the percentages of plagiarized text. As shown in Table 2, the control group had a much higher average percentage of plagiarism (5.45%) than the experimental groups. The result of the ANOVA test was significant (a = .05), p = .037 “

A possible format, Examples and 4 tips for the 2500 word task
The 2500 word task can be presented as a single essay that addresses all the tasks or you can do each task separately
make sure that there is a brief comment about what you are supposed to learn in a research methods course, you make this comment in a separate section or you can include it as part of your other sections
At the end of your assignment there must be a references section and this should have all the references you have used, this proves you can write a reference list.
Since the references are at the end and do not count towards the word limit you COULD make your task have the structure below or you could have a different structure
Section Words
1 Dissussion of the articles on how to reduce plagiarism by discussing turnitin output.
Chao, C., Wilhelm, W. J., & Neureuther, B. D. (2009). A STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DETECTION AND PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES FOR REDUCING PLAGIARISM. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 51(1), 31-42
This is available on EBSCO
Davis, M., & Carroll, J. (2009). Formative feedback within plagiarism education: Is there a role for text-matching software?. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 5(2).
(This is available on google scholar, it is free on google scholar
1100
2 Discussion of the suitable topic of your choice, You can pick any topic but it has to be a “narrow” topic and you have to find 5 articles and discuss 2 articles, It does not matter if both articles are qualitative or both articles or if one is quantitative and one is qualitative 1300
3 Brief comment about what student are supposed to learn in a research methods course 100
total 2500
Notice that the section a suitable topic of your choice will probably require more words because you will to discuss the gap in the literature
TIP 1As a general tip do actually revise the notes on Qualitative methods and Quantitative methods,
Qualitative methods are inductive, for example if you plan to take a survey and summarize the results with numbers and then do some research that explains the numbers then you are using a qualitative method, When you use a Qualitative method your work will have answers that are specific to the problem they are not general.
Qualitative methods are inductive, for example if you plan to take a survey and summarize the results but before you get the results you decide to use a hypothesis test then you are using a Quantitative method, A Hypothesis test actually makes a prediction usually some very generalised theory,
With a mixed method there is a qualitative stage where you gather data, Then you work out a suitable hypothesis test and then you get a another sample so you can perform the hypothesis test
Brief example of the “suitable topic of your choice section” of the 2500 word essay.
state your specific topic (you only have to discuss 2 articles in full detail however to demonstrate you know how to search for literature then find 5 articles) , Since you are giving references before the references sections put the references in quotes
Example
All of the articles below specifically address the question
‘How to fix the misconceptions students have about p-value by showing them simulations’
“Briand, G., & Hill, R. C. (2013). Teaching basic econometric concepts using Monte Carlo simulations in Excel. International Review of Economics Education, 12, 60-79.”
“Budgett, S., Pfannkuch, M., Regan, M., & Wild, C. J. (2012). Dynamic visualizations for inference. International
Association of Statistcial Education Roundtable Conference July.”
“Kuss, O. and Stang, A. (2012), The p-value – a well-understood and properly used statistical concept?. Contact Dermatitis, 66: 1–3. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.2011.02002.x
“McDaniel, S. N., & Green, L. (2012a). Independent Interactive Inquiry-Based Learning Modules Using Audio-Visual Instruction In Statistics. Technology Innovations in Statistics Education, 6(1).”
“McDaniel, S. N., & Green, L. B. (2012b). Using Applets and Video Instruction to Foster Students’ Understanding of Sampling Variability. Technology Innovations in Statistics Education, 6(1).”

2) Paraphrase the main finding of the 2 articles
Both Budgett(2012) and McDaniel(2012b) agree than students struggle to understand the concept of p-value you can use simulations to convince students that it is possible to give a method for finding the percentile of a test statistic using that test statistic, It does not matter that you do not actually know the distribution of what you are sampling.
3) Discuss how the authors discuss the work other researchers, this should be a synthesis of the introduction to the article and notes on how to conduct a proper literature review
Both articles have a literature review section that brings the reader up to date on the current research on the topic
and helps the reader understand how the article builds on existing research.

Budgett(2012) cites and paraphrases many articles that explain why the way a university usually teaches students what a ‘p-value’ is causes misconceptions about what a ‘p-value’ is, this explains why the alternate method for teaching students discussed in the body of the article is useful.
McDaniel(2012b) cites and paraphrases many articles that demonstrate how using a simulation can teach students about sampling distributions, it does not explain why this is important for understanding what a p-value is the author assumes the reader knows it is important to understand sampling distributions
4) Discussion of research methods used , Qualitative, Quantitative or mixed methods?
Both of the articles only support their arguments by applying a formula to data (p-values were calculated and the fact that the p-value is less than 0.05 is support for the argument) so both articles are just using quantitative methods
5) No example for discussing ethics, your response should demonstrate you have read the articles and the lecture notes
any participants in the research have a right not to be harmed and a right to privacy
6) Discuss a gap in the 2 articles you discuss in detail.
Both Budgett(2012) and McDaniel(2012b) discuss how students have However the literature does not discuss the cause of these misconceptions
One source of misconception is that students think a p-value can be explained by using the formal definition the and they don’t slowly try and understand p-value without carefully looking at data which used to calculate the p-value.
An Analogy is teaching your grandmother how to use the internet
Everyone that has used the internet knows what http:// is for because of experience and many people do not actually know https means “hyper text transfer protocol” , Learning to use the internet is similar to Hypothesis testing the best to learn practice instead of learning key words
Hypothesis testing is similar to learning how to use Google or Bing, the best way to learn how use google or Bing ha ving this sort of discussion with students encourages the students to understand it. Having this sort of discussion prepares students to teach themselves the main ideas of hypothesis testing by actually looking at the results of simulations by looking at them rather than waiting for a lecturer to explain them with words.
Another fact that students do not understand on is the fact that p-value is a probability. So another way of testing if simulations help students understand what a p-value is would be to give a survey asking the students how a p-value is similar and different to the following statement of probability ‘If am going to throw 10 coins the probability I will get 10 heads is 0.001’ then you could get students to look at a then take another survey and see if the results improve
Tip 2, Given below is a discuss of the goals of a literature review, The introduction to most journal articles has the same goal so discuss this briefly in the 2500 essay,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpErYDb6PsY 14:00

Note that if an the article is short they only deal with one topic so there is no need for practical headings
The introduction to a journal article is similar to a literature review because the following aspects of a literature review are highly desirablehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpErYDb6PsY 10:04
Tip 3 When looking at the articles Check if the introduction to the article avoids common errors that novice researchers makes , If the introduction has these errors then the article lacks authority

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpErYDb6PsY 23:41

So academic research is different to real life, In real life you can have conversations with the smartest of your colleagues but that is not appropriate research article, In a research article you must cite other peer reviewed journal articles
Also academic research is different to undergraduate studies it is not appropriate to mainly rely on an introductory textbook.
Tip 4 Include some discussion about how research methods is a general topic that is useful for all postgrads, For example at big university postgrads from many different courses and disciplines attend the same lecture
For example in the following video on a literature review they talk about how the concepts taught in literature review are useful for all postgrads, Discuss briefly in the 2500 word essay
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpErYDb6PsY 6:58

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